Types of Bone Grafts
- Autogenous Bone Grafts
- In this type of graft, the bone is removed from elsewhere in the body and implanted in the mouth. Common donor sites for bone grafting include the iliac section of the pelvis, the chin, and the posterior third molar areas of the jaw. If large amounts of bone need to be harvested, the hip or the shin bone (tibia) is generally used.
- Human bone is available through tissue banks (accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks), which process and store these types of grafts under completely sterile conditions.
- Xenograft, Alloplasts, and Tissue-Engineered Materials
- These are bone substitutes made of ceramic materials, including deorganified bovine bone.
What does bone grafting treatment involve?
A small incision is made in the gum tissue and then gently separated from the bone. The bone grafting material is then placed at the affected site. The bone regeneration process may be aided by:
- Gum/bone tissue regeneration
- A thin barrier (membrane) is placed below the gum line over the grafting material. This barrier creates enough space for healthy tissue to grow and separates the faster-growing gum tissue from the slower growing fibers. This means that bone cells can migrate to the protected area and grow naturally.
- Tissue stimulating protein
- Enamel matrix proteins occur during natural tooth development. Emdogain is a matrix protein product which is usually placed on the affected site before suturing the gum tissue. Emdogain mediates the formation of acellular cementum on the tooth, which provides a foundation to allow periodontal attachment to occur. Tissue-stimulating proteins help to create lost support in areas affected by periodontal defects.
The gum is sutured in place and a follow-up appointment will need to be made within 10 days to assess progress. Bone grafting is a highly successful treatment and a good base for further periodontal restorations.
If you have any questions about bone grafting, please ask your periodontist.